Friday, June 21, 2024
No menu items!
HomeArtificial Intelligence and Machine LearningLlama Guard is now available in Amazon SageMaker JumpStart

Llama Guard is now available in Amazon SageMaker JumpStart

Today we are excited to announce that the Llama Guard model is now available for customers using Amazon SageMaker JumpStart. Llama Guard provides input and output safeguards in large language model (LLM) deployment. It’s one of the components under Purple Llama, Meta’s initiative featuring open trust and safety tools and evaluations to help developers build responsibly with AI models. Purple Llama brings together tools and evaluations to help the community build responsibly with generative AI models. The initial release includes a focus on cyber security and LLM input and output safeguards. Components within the Purple Llama project, including the Llama Guard model, are licensed permissively, enabling both research and commercial usage.

Now you can use the Llama Guard model within SageMaker JumpStart. SageMaker JumpStart is the machine learning (ML) hub of Amazon SageMaker that provides access to foundation models in addition to built-in algorithms and end-to-end solution templates to help you quickly get started with ML.

In this post, we walk through how to deploy the Llama Guard model and build responsible generative AI solutions.

Llama Guard model

Llama Guard is a new model from Meta that provides input and output guardrails for LLM deployments. Llama Guard is an openly available model that performs competitively on common open benchmarks and provides developers with a pretrained model to help defend against generating potentially risky outputs. This model has been trained on a mix of publicly available datasets to enable detection of common types of potentially risky or violating content that may be relevant to a number of developer use cases. Ultimately, the vision of the model is to enable developers to customize this model to support relevant use cases and to make it effortless to adopt best practices and improve the open ecosystem.

Llama Guard can be used as a supplemental tool for developers to integrate into their own mitigation strategies, such as for chatbots, content moderation, customer service, social media monitoring, and education. By passing user-generated content through Llama Guard before publishing or responding to it, developers can flag unsafe or inappropriate language and take action to maintain a safe and respectful environment.

Let’s explore how we can use the Llama Guard model in SageMaker JumpStart.

Foundation models in SageMaker

SageMaker JumpStart provides access to a range of models from popular model hubs, including Hugging Face, PyTorch Hub, and TensorFlow Hub, which you can use within your ML development workflow in SageMaker. Recent advances in ML have given rise to a new class of models known as foundation models, which are typically trained on billions of parameters and are adaptable to a wide category of use cases, such as text summarization, digital art generation, and language translation. Because these models are expensive to train, customers want to use existing pre-trained foundation models and fine-tune them as needed, rather than train these models themselves. SageMaker provides a curated list of models that you can choose from on the SageMaker console.

You can now find foundation models from different model providers within SageMaker JumpStart, enabling you to get started with foundation models quickly. You can find foundation models based on different tasks or model providers, and easily review model characteristics and usage terms. You can also try out these models using a test UI widget. When you want to use a foundation model at scale, you can do so easily without leaving SageMaker by using pre-built notebooks from model providers. Because the models are hosted and deployed on AWS, you can rest assured that your data, whether used for evaluating or using the model at scale, is never shared with third parties.

Let’s explore how we can use the Llama Guard model in SageMaker JumpStart.

Discover the Llama Guard model in SageMaker JumpStart

You can access Code Llama foundation models through SageMaker JumpStart in the SageMaker Studio UI and the SageMaker Python SDK. In this section, we go over how to discover the models in Amazon SageMaker Studio.

SageMaker Studio is an integrated development environment (IDE) that provides a single web-based visual interface where you can access purpose-built tools to perform all ML development steps, from preparing data to building, training, and deploying your ML models. For more details on how to get started and set up SageMaker Studio, refer to Amazon SageMaker Studio.

In SageMaker Studio, you can access SageMaker JumpStart, which contains pre-trained models, notebooks, and prebuilt solutions, under Prebuilt and automated solutions.

On the SageMaker JumpStart landing page, you can find the Llama Guard model by choosing the Meta hub or searching for Llama Guard.

You can select from a variety of Llama model variants, including Llama Guard, Llama-2, and Code Llama.

You can choose the model card to view details about the model such as license, data used to train, and how to use. You will also find a Deploy option, which will take you to a landing page where you can test inference with an example payload.

Deploy the model with the SageMaker Python SDK

You can find the code showing the deployment of Llama Guard on Amazon JumpStart and an example of how to use the deployed model in this GitHub notebook.

In the following code, we specify the SageMaker model hub model ID and model version to use when deploying Llama Guard:

model_id = “meta-textgeneration-llama-guard-7b”
model_version = “1.*”

You can now deploy the model using SageMaker JumpStart. The following code uses the default instance ml.g5.2xlarge for the inference endpoint. You can deploy the model on other instance types by passing instance_type in the JumpStartModel class. The deployment might take a few minutes. For a successful deployment, you must manually change the accept_eula argument in the model’s deploy method to True.

from sagemaker.jumpstart.model import JumpStartModel

model = JumpStartModel(model_id=model_id, model_version=model_version)
accept_eula = False # change to True to accept EULA for successful model deployment
try:
predictor = model.deploy(accept_eula=accept_eula)
except Exception as e:
print(e)

This model is deployed using the Text Generation Inference (TGI) deep learning container. Inference requests support many parameters, including the following:

max_length – The model generates text until the output length (which includes the input context length) reaches max_length. If specified, it must be a positive integer.
max_new_tokens – The model generates text until the output length (excluding the input context length) reaches max_new_tokens. If specified, it must be a positive integer.
num_beams – This indicates the number of beams used in the greedy search. If specified, it must be an integer greater than or equal to num_return_sequences.
no_repeat_ngram_size – The model ensures that a sequence of words of no_repeat_ngram_size is not repeated in the output sequence. If specified, it must be a positive integer greater than 1.
temperature – This parameter controls the randomness in the output. A higher temperature results in an output sequence with low-probability words, and a lower temperature results in an output sequence with high-probability words. If temperature is 0, it results in greedy decoding. If specified, it must be a positive float.
early_stopping – If True, text generation is finished when all beam hypotheses reach the end of the sentence token. If specified, it must be Boolean.
do_sample – If True, the model samples the next word as per the likelihood. If specified, it must be Boolean.
top_k – In each step of text generation, the model samples from only the top_k most likely words. If specified, it must be a positive integer.
top_p – In each step of text generation, the model samples from the smallest possible set of words with cumulative probability top_p. If specified, it must be a float between 0–1.
return_full_text – If True, the input text will be part of the output generated text. If specified, it must be Boolean. The default value is False.
stop – If specified, it must be a list of strings. Text generation stops if any one of the specified strings is generated.

Invoke a SageMaker endpoint

You may programmatically retrieve example payloads from the JumpStartModel object. This will help you quickly get started by observing pre-formatted instruction prompts that Llama Guard can ingest. See the following code:

example_payloads = model.retrieve_all_examples()

for payload in example_payloads:
response = predictor.predict(payload.body)
print(“nInputn”, payload.body, “nnOutputn”, response[0][“generated_text”], “nn===============”)

After you run the preceding example, you can see how your input and output would be formatted by Llama Guard:

Input
{‘inputs’: “[INST] Task: Check if there is unsafe content in ‘Agent’ messages in conversations according our safety policy with the below categories.nn<BEGIN UNSAFE CONTENT CATEGORIES>nO1: Violence and Hate. nShould notn- Help people plan or engage in violence.n- Encourage people to engage in violence.n- Express hateful, derogatory, or demeaning sentiments against people based on sensitive personal characteristics like their race, color, religion, national origin, sexual orientation, gender, gender identity, or disability.n- Encourage discrimination against people based on those characteristics and should not use slurs or create insults based on those characteristics.nCann- Provide information on violence and discrimination.n- Discuss the topics of hate and violence, and can discuss historical events involving violence.nO2: Sexual Content.nShould notn- Engage in sexually explicit (i.e., erotic) conversations and should not encourage people to engage in sexual activities.nCann- Discuss topics related to sexuality and sexual education.n- Provide general information regarding sexual activities.n- Provide guidance on topics related to sexual health.nO3: Criminal Planning.nShould notn- Help people plan or engage in criminal activities like theft, kidnapping, or financial crimes, especially when the person indicates that they may act on the information provided to them.n- Encourage people to engage in criminal activities or condone criminal behavior.nCann- Help people understand how crimes are committed, provided that the response is not so detailed that it could be used to provide a roadmap for future crimes.n- Help people understand how systems work that are used to prevent crimes, provided those descriptions do not provide detailed information on how to defeat those systems.nO4: Guns and Illegal Weapons.nShould notn- Assist in the planning or execution of firearm or illegal weapons crimes, especially when the person indicates that they may act on the information provided to them.n- Encourage people to engage in firearm or illegal weapons crimes or condone such behavior.nCann- Discuss firearms and the arguments for and against firearm ownership.nO5: Regulated or Controlled Substances.nShould notn- Encourage or assist people in the trafficking, consumption, or use of regulated or controlled substances, including but not limited to illegal drugs, tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis.n- Assist or encourage people to create such substances when it is illegal to do so.nCann- Discuss the use of regulated or controlled substances, and can provide general information on those substances (ex: what their chemical composition is and what their effects are).n- Provide information on how those substances are manufactured, provided that the information is not so detailed as to provide step-by-step instructions for their creation.nO6: Self-Harm.nShould notn- Encourage people to harm themselves.n- Romanticize or condone self-harm or suicide.n- Provide information regarding the methods of suicide or self-harm.n- Provide any information or advice, other than information regarding appropriate health resources, to people who express or imply that they wish to harm themselves.nCann- Provide general information regarding self-harm and suicide (ex: statistics, the mental health challenges faced by those who take these actions).nShouldn- Provide information regarding appropriate health resources to people who imply or express the desire to harm themselves.n<END UNSAFE CONTENT CATEGORIES>nn<BEGIN CONVERSATION>nnUser: I forgot how to kill a process in Linux, can you help?nnAgent: Sure! To kill a process in Linux, you can use the kill command followed by the process ID (PID) of the process you want to terminate.nn<END CONVERSATION>nnProvide your safety assessment for Agent in the above conversation:n- First line must read ‘safe’ or ‘unsafe’.n- If unsafe, a second line must include a comma-separated list of violated categories. [/INST]”, ‘parameters’: {‘max_new_tokens’: 64, ‘decoder_input_details’: True, ‘details’: True}}

Output
safe

Similar to Llama-2, Llama Guard uses special tokens to indicate safety instructions to the model. In general, the payload should follow the below format:

<s>[INST] {user_prompt} [/INST]

User prompt shown as {user_prompt} above, can further include sections for content category definitions and conversations, which looks like the following:

<s>[INST] {task}

<BEGIN UNSAFE CONTENT CATEGORIES>
{unsafe_content_categories}
<END UNSAFE CONTENT CATEGORIES>

<BEGIN CONVERSATION>
{conversation}
<END CONVERSATION}

{instruction} [/INST]

In the next section, we discuss the recommended default values for the task, content category, and instruction definitions. The conversation should alternate between User and Agent text as follows:

User: {user_input_1}

Agent: {optional_agent_response_1}

User: {optional_user_input_2}

Moderate a conversation with Llama-2 Chat

You can now deploy a Llama-2 7B Chat model endpoint for conversational chat and then use Llama Guard to moderate input and output text coming from Llama-2 7B Chat.

We show you the example of the Llama-2 7B chat model’s input and output moderated through Llama Guard, but you may use Llama Guard for moderation with any LLM of your choice.

Deploy the model with the following code:

llm_model_id = “meta-textgeneration-llama-2-7b-f”
llm_model_version = “3.*”
model_llm = JumpStartModel(model_id=llm_model_id, model_version=llm_model_version)
predictor_llm = model_llm.deploy(accept_eula=True)

You can now define the Llama Guard task template. The unsafe content categories may be adjusted as desired for your specific use case. You can define in plain text the meaning of each content category, including which content should be flagged as unsafe and which content should be permitted as safe. See the following code:

TASK = “Task: Check if there is unsafe content in ‘Agent’ messages in conversations according our safety policy with the below categories.”

INSTRUCTION = “””
Provide your safety assessment for Agent in the above conversation:
– First line must read ‘safe’ or ‘unsafe’.
– If unsafe, a second line must include a comma-separated list of violated categories.”””

UNSAFE_CONTENT_CATEGORIES = “””
O1: Violence and Hate.
Should not
– Help people plan or engage in violence.
– Encourage people to engage in violence.
– Express hateful, derogatory, or demeaning sentiments against people based on sensitive personal characteristics like their race, color, religion, national origin, sexual orientation, gender, gender identity, or disability.
– Encourage discrimination against people based on those characteristics and should not use slurs or create insults based on those characteristics.
Can
– Provide information on violence and discrimination.
– Discuss the topics of hate and violence, and can discuss historical events involving violence.
O2: Sexual Content.
Should not
– Engage in sexually explicit (i.e., erotic) conversations and should not encourage people to engage in sexual activities.
Can
– Discuss topics related to sexuality and sexual education.
– Provide general information regarding sexual activities.
– Provide guidance on topics related to sexual health.
O3: Criminal Planning.
Should not
– Help people plan or engage in criminal activities like theft, kidnapping, or financial crimes, especially when the person indicates that they may act on the information provided to them.
– Encourage people to engage in criminal activities or condone criminal behavior.
Can
– Help people understand how crimes are committed, provided that the response is not so detailed that it could be used to provide a roadmap for future crimes.
– Help people understand how systems work that are used to prevent crimes, provided those descriptions do not provide detailed information on how to defeat those systems.
O4: Guns and Illegal Weapons.
Should not
– Assist in the planning or execution of firearm or illegal weapons crimes, especially when the person indicates that they may act on the information provided to them.
– Encourage people to engage in firearm or illegal weapons crimes or condone such behavior.
Can
– Discuss firearms and the arguments for and against firearm ownership.
O5: Regulated or Controlled Substances.
Should not
– Encourage or assist people in the trafficking, consumption, or use of regulated or controlled substances, including but not limited to illegal drugs, tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis.
– Assist or encourage people to create such substances when it is illegal to do so.
Can
– Discuss the use of regulated or controlled substances, and can provide general information on those substances (ex: what their chemical composition is and what their effects are).
– Provide information on how those substances are manufactured, provided that the information is not so detailed as to provide step-by-step instructions for their creation.
O6: Self-Harm.
Should not
– Encourage people to harm themselves.
– Romanticize or condone self-harm or suicide.
– Provide information regarding the methods of suicide or self-harm.
– Provide any information or advice, other than information regarding appropriate health resources, to people who express or imply that they wish to harm themselves.
Can
– Provide general information regarding self-harm and suicide (ex: statistics, the mental health challenges faced by those who take these actions).
Should
– Provide information regarding appropriate health resources to people who imply or express the desire to harm themselves.”””

Next, we define helper functions format_chat_messages and format_guard_messages to format the prompt for the chat model and for the Llama Guard model that required special tokens:

from itertools import cycle
from typing import Dict, List

def format_chat_messages(messages: List[Dict[str, str]]) -> List[str]:
“””Format messages for Llama-2 chat models.

The model only supports ‘system’, ‘user’ and ‘assistant’ roles, starting with ‘system’, then ‘user’ and
alternating (u/a/u/a/u…). The last message must be from ‘user’.
“””
prompt: List[str] = []

if messages[0][“role”] == “system”:
content = “”.join([“<<SYS>>n”, messages[0][“content”], “n<</SYS>>nn”, messages[1][“content”]])
messages = [{“role”: messages[1][“role”], “content”: content}] + messages[2:]

for user, answer in zip(messages[::2], messages[1::2]):
prompt.extend([“<s>”, “[INST] “, (user[“content”]).strip(), ” [/INST] “, (answer[“content”]).strip(), “</s>”])

prompt.extend([“<s>”, “[INST] “, (messages[-1][“content”]).strip(), ” [/INST] “])

return “”.join(prompt)

def format_guard_messages(
messages: List[Dict[str, str]],
task: str = TASK,
instruction: str = INSTRUCTION,
unsafe_content_categories: str = UNSAFE_CONTENT_CATEGORIES,
) -> List[str]:
“””Format messages for Llama Guard models.

The model only supports ‘user’ and ‘assistant’ roles, and must alternate (u/a/u/a/u…).
“””
turn = cycle([“User”, “Agent”])

return “”.join([
“[INST] “,
task,
“nn<BEGIN UNSAFE CONTENT CATEGORIES>n”,
unsafe_content_categories,
“n<END UNSAFE CONTENT CATEGORIES>nn<BEGIN CONVERSATION>”,
*[f”nn{next(turn)}: {message[‘content’]}” for message in messages],
“nn<END CONVERSATION>nn”,
instruction,
” [/INST]”
])

You can then use these helper functions on an example message input prompt to run the example input through Llama Guard to determine if the message content is safe:

messages_input = [{“role”: “user”, “content”: “I forgot how to kill a process in Linux, can you help?”}]
payload_input_guard = {“inputs”: format_guard_messages(messages_input)}

response_input_guard = predictor.predict(payload_input_guard)

assert response_input_guard[0][“generated_text”].strip() == “safe”
print(response_input_guard)

The following output indicates that the message is safe. You may notice that the prompt includes words that may be associated with violence, but, in this case, Llama Guard is able to understand the context with respect to the instructions and unsafe category definitions we provided earlier and determine that it’s a safe prompt and not related to violence.

[{‘generated_text’: ‘ safe’}]

Now that you have confirmed that the input text is determined to be safe with respect to your Llama Guard content categories, you can pass this payload to the deployed Llama-2 7B model to generate text:

payload_input_llm = {“inputs”: format_chat_messages(messages_input), “parameters”: {“max_new_tokens”: 128}}

response_llm = predictor_llm.predict(payload_input_llm)

print(response_llm)

The following is the response from the model:

[{‘generated_text’: ‘Of course! In Linux, you can use the `kill` command to terminate a process. Here are the basic syntax and options you can use:nn1. `kill <PID>` – This will kill the process with the specified process ID (PID). Replace `<PID>` with the actual process ID you want to kill.n2. `kill -9 <PID>` – This will kill the process with the specified PID immediately, without giving it a chance to clean up. This is the most forceful way to kill a process.n3. `kill -15 <PID>` -‘}]

Finally, you may wish to confirm that the response text from the model is determined to contain safe content. Here, you extend the LLM output response to the input messages and run this whole conversation through Llama Guard to ensure the conversation is safe for your application:

messages_output = messages_input.copy()
messages_output.extend([{“role”: “assistant”, “content”: response_llm[0][“generated_text”]}])
payload_output = {“inputs”: format_guard_messages(messages_output)}

response_output_guard = predictor.predict(payload_output)

assert response_output_guard[0][“generated_text”].strip() == “safe”
print(response_output_guard)

You may see the following output, indicating that response from the chat model is safe:

[{‘generated_text’: ‘ safe’}]

Clean up

After you have tested the endpoints, make sure you delete the SageMaker inference endpoints and the model to avoid incurring charges.

Conclusion

In this post, we showed you how you can moderate inputs and outputs using Llama Guard and put guardrails for inputs and outputs from LLMs in SageMaker JumpStart.

As AI continues to advance, it’s critical to prioritize responsible development and deployment. Tools like Purple Llama’s CyberSecEval and Llama Guard are instrumental in fostering safe innovation, offering early risk identification and mitigation guidance for language models. These should be ingrained in the AI design process to harness its full potential of LLMs ethically from Day 1.

Try out Llama Guard and other foundation models in SageMaker JumpStart today and let us know your feedback!

This guidance is for informational purposes only. You should still perform your own independent assessment, and take measures to ensure that you comply with your own specific quality control practices and standards, and the local rules, laws, regulations, licenses, and terms of use that apply to you, your content, and the third-party model referenced in this guidance. AWS has no control or authority over the third-party model referenced in this guidance, and does not make any representations or warranties that the third-party model is secure, virus-free, operational, or compatible with your production environment and standards. AWS does not make any representations, warranties, or guarantees that any information in this guidance will result in a particular outcome or result.

About the authors

Dr. Kyle Ulrich is an Applied Scientist with the Amazon SageMaker built-in algorithms team. His research interests include scalable machine learning algorithms, computer vision, time series, Bayesian non-parametrics, and Gaussian processes. His PhD is from Duke University and he has published papers in NeurIPS, Cell, and Neuron.

Evan Kravitz is a software engineer at Amazon Web Services, working on SageMaker JumpStart. He is interested in the confluence of machine learning with cloud computing. Evan received his undergraduate degree from Cornell University and master’s degree from the University of California, Berkeley. In 2021, he presented a paper on adversarial neural networks at the ICLR conference. In his free time, Evan enjoys cooking, traveling, and going on runs in New York City.

Rachna Chadha is a Principal Solution Architect AI/ML in Strategic Accounts at AWS. Rachna is an optimist who believes that ethical and responsible use of AI can improve society in the future and bring economic and social prosperity. In her spare time, Rachna likes spending time with her family, hiking, and listening to music.

Dr. Ashish Khetan is a Senior Applied Scientist with Amazon SageMaker built-in algorithms and helps develop machine learning algorithms. He got his PhD from University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. He is an active researcher in machine learning and statistical inference, and has published many papers in NeurIPS, ICML, ICLR, JMLR, ACL, and EMNLP conferences.

Karl Albertsen leads product, engineering, and science for Amazon SageMaker Algorithms and JumpStart, SageMaker’s machine learning hub. He is passionate about applying machine learning to unlock business value.

Read MoreAWS Machine Learning Blog

RELATED ARTICLES

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here

Most Popular

Recent Comments